Globalization refers to integration between people, companies, and governments. Most noteworthy, this integration occurs on a global scale. Furthermore, it is the process of expanding the business all over the world. In Globalization, many businesses expand globally and assume an international image. Consequently, there is a requirement for huge investment to develop international companies. First of all, people have been trading goods since civilization began. In the 1st century BC, there was the transportation of goods from China to Europe. The goods transportation took place along the Silk Road. The Silk Road route was very long in distance. This was a remarkable development in the history of Globalization. This is because, for the first time ever, goods were sold across continents. Globalization kept on growing gradually since 1st BC. Another significant development took place in the 7th century AD. This was the time when the religion of Islam spread. Most noteworthy, Arab merchants led to a rapid expansion of international trade. By the 9th century, there was the domination of Muslim traders on international trade. Furthermore, the focus of trade at this time was spices.
True Global trade began in the Age of Discovery in the 15th century. The Eastern and Western continents were connected by European merchants. There was the discovery of America in this period. Consequently, global trade reached America from Europe. From the 19th century, there was a domination of Great Britain all over the world. There was a rapid spread of international trade. The British developed powerful ships and trains. Consequently, the speed of transportation greatly increased. The rate of production of goods also significantly increased. Communication also got faster which was better for Global trade. Finally, in 20th and 21st -Century Globalization took its ultimate form. Above all, the development of technology and the internet took place. This was a massive aid for Globalization. Hence, E-commerce plays a huge role in Globalization.
Technological Innovation is another notable contribution of Globalization. Most noteworthy, there is a huge emphasis on technology development in Globalization. Furthermore, there is also technology transfer due to Globalization. The technology would certainly benefit the common people. The quality of products improves due to Globalization. This is because manufacturers try to make products of high-quality. This is due to the pressure of intense competition. If the product is inferior, people can easily switch to another high-quality product. To sum it up, Globalization is a very visible phenomenon currently. Most noteworthy, it is continuously increasing. Above all, it is a great blessing to trade. This is because it brings a lot of economic and social benefits to it.
The frontiers of the state with increased confidence in the market economy and renewed policies in the private capital and resources, a process of structural adjustment spurred by the studies and with the support of the World Bank and other international organizations have started in many of the developing countries. Globalization has also brought in new opportunities to developing countries. Greater access to developed country markets and technology transfer has promised to improve their productivity and higher standards. At the same time, Globalization has also created challenges like growing inequality across and within nations, instability in the financial market and environmental deterioration. Globalization is a fascinating exhibition that can be understood as a global system of competition and connectivity. It has created tough competition among countries and global corporations. The British Colonial rule had destroyed the self-sufficient economy of India and left India to be the poorest Independent country. Our first Prime Minister gave preference to a mixed economy to boost the economic condition of the country. Public sectors were set up along with the private enterprises, but because of the socialistic model of the economy, the new strategy did not produce profitable results. Due to this, a number of public sectors became sick and the growth rates of production began to fall. During that time, the poverty of the people in India was increasing at an alarming rate and because of low domestic savings and acute balance of payment crisis, there was no adequate capital for investment. During that time of crisis, Prime Minister PV Narsimha Rao introduced the policy of liberalization, privatization to overcome the financial situation. India opened up to Globalization after the economic policy of 1991 came into force. Mounting debts and pressure from the International Monetary Fund drove the nation to go global. The process of Globalization has been an integral part of the recent economic growth of India. Globalization has played a very significant role in the growth of export, leading to the expansion of the job market in India. One of the major sectors of Globalization in India has been in the growth of outsourced IT and Business Process Outsourcing services. There has been an incredible increase in the number of skilled professionals in India employed by domestic and foreign companies to cater service to the customers globally, especially in the USA and Europe. There was not a doubt that Globalization in India brought a monumental change in the living standards of the people. People in India realized many benefits from Globalization. The establishment of multinational companies generating billions of jobs and access to umpteen numbers of brands and an increase in the forex reserves of the country took India to a higher platform globally. Despite this monumental change in the economy of the country, India also faced the challenges of severe competition from the foreign market and the domestic producers started fearing marginalization and pulverization because of the better quality products produced by the foreign producers Globalization had both desirable and undesirable consequences for India and the world. Even though it has accelerated progress in some countries, it has also widened the gap between the rich and the poor.
As globalization has progressed, living conditions (particularly when measured by broader indicators of well being) have improved significantly in virtually all countries. However, the strongest gains have been made by the advanced countries and only some of the developing countries.
Elections in a demographically large democracy like India demands vibrant — at times chaotic — political interaction, and mass mobilisation on a large scale. The pandemic makes the situation immensely challenging.
COVID–outbreak affected mostly all areas of public and private life all over the world. This outbreak has a significant impact on our democracies. Elections are not an exception. State authorities either delay and re-schedule the initially planned elections or consider alternative voting processes and procedures to protect voters and election commissioners from spreading the virus at the polling stations (e.g. postal voting, remote voting etc.).
The sudden spread of the Covid-19 pandemic all across the world has disrupted every aspect of public life. More importantly, the threat of the virus is unlikely to end any soon, as the surge of fresh cases continues in many parts of the world and the confirmed news of a reliable vaccine is yet to come by.
Under such circumstances, with the resumption of economic and other essential services, public life is slowly moving towards the “new normal” where routine activities in life are again being undertaken. However, the process of restoring “normalcy” is being done largely by following precautionary measures as the threat of the virus looms large. One such routine activity is the conduct of elections in democracies across the world.
Democratic elections, by the very nature of it, is extremely challenging to be held amidst the spread of an infectious disease like Covid-19. As elections require intense public interaction and mass communication, the apprehension is that the precautionary norms like social distancing and avoidance of crowded gatherings will essentially impede the hassle-free conduct of elections.Democratic elections, by the very nature of it, is extremely challenging to be held amidst the spread of an infectious disease like Covid-19.
The challenges of conducting elections in a democracy like India, which has the largest number of electorates in the world, are manifold. However, as the pandemic continues to persist, putting elections, which is the most perceptible hallmark of a vibrant working democracy, at abeyance is detrimental for accountable governance that democracy seeks to establish. So, after few months of keeping some Rajya Sabha and Legislative Council elections on temporary hold, India conducted those elections in many states. However, those elections involved limited participants and so was easier to conduct during the ensuing health crisis. But, India’s first major large-scale direct election is set to be held in the state of Bihar soon amidst the pandemic.
The Election Commission has scheduled the Vidhan Sabha elections in Bihar by the end of October. The elections will be held in three phases and the results will be declared by 10 November. Taking a cue from the successful model of conducting elections during the pandemic in countries like South Korea, Singapore and others, the Election Commission in India has brought out strict precautionary guidelines in order to curb the spread of the infection during the election. For the campaign (Bihar), virtual rallies and online political communication between the leaders and the electorate with expansive use of social media is being encouraged.
Stringent guidelines have been issued which needs to be observed both during the election campaigning as well as during casting of votes by the electorates in the polling booths. For the campaign, virtual rallies and online political communication between the leaders and the electorate with expansive use of social media is being encouraged.
Even for mass rallies and roadshows, limited public participation and reduced number of vehicles with proper social distancing measures and adequate intervals have been directed by the Election Commission. Conducting door-to-door campaigns with limited political cadres and having the election nomination process for the candidates with reduced number of people have also been instructed.
Even for the polling process, a number of special measures would be taken. The number of polling personal as well as polling booths have been increased than before. The limit for maximum number of voters in each polling booth has been reduced for avoiding overcrowding. Provisions for thermal scanning of all voters and availability of gloves for the electorates before accessing the Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) for casting the votes, has been ensured.The provision of postal voting is also to be made available for the vulnerable voters like the elderly and handicap people.
Adequate supply of hand sanitisers, soap, water and other necessary measures for ensuring health safety both for the polling personnel as well as the voters will also be made available as per the guidelines. Even special provisions of secluded voting in the last hour of the day for the quarantined and Covid-19 positive patients is been arranged with adequate caution. The provision of postal voting is also to be made available for the vulnerable voters like the elderly and handicap people However, the mammoth electoral exercise in Bihar involves more than nine crore voters. So, with the abovementioned precautions, it will invariably posit some challenges for the prerequisites of transparent and fair procedures of democracy that elections are mandated to observe.
For instance, Bihar is a state with 37 percent of people having access to internet and 27 percent having access to smart phones. So as pointed out by the former Election Commissioner of India, S.Y. Quraishi, the extent of the reach of virtual campaigning and political communication of social media might be limited in nature.The mammoth electoral exercise in Bihar involves more than nine crore voters.This would require other alternative modes of technologically sound campaigning techniques like the use of holograms. Such sophisticated modes of election campaign would require high level of expenditure and well-equipped technical wherewithal that would inadvertently put the national parties with more material resources and reach in an advantageous position over the regional and smaller parties with limited resources. Moreover, such excessive use of social media and other virtual modes of communication for the political campaign might be lopsided in nature due to the immense digital divide that persists in India. Due to the further differences in the resources and outreach capacity of the various parties during the pandemic, a major section of voters might be oblivious to the assurances and promises made by certain political parties. This can create a disproportionate dissemination of information to the voters and they might be unevenly influenced by the constant political communication of the parties which would be able to virtually reach them more than other parties who are incapable of doing so.
The voters are expected to make informed choices based on their knowledge regarding the electoral promises made by all the major parties in the electoral fray. But, such asymmetrical nature of political messaging might detrimentally impact the level playing ground that fair elections are expected to offer. The chances of violating the Model Code of Conduct during election campaign through virtual interactions will be easier for political parties. Moreover, it will be undoubtedly more challenging for the Election Commission to track and monitor all the political interaction and electoral campaign in the virtual space where several activities can take place simultaneously in many platforms. Hence, the chances of violating the Model Code of Conduct during election campaign through virtual interactions will be easier for political parties in such circumstances.
Former Chief Election Commissioner Quraishi also pointed out that the menace of fake news and inflammatory hate propaganda, which already polarises the social media space, might aggravate during such virtual political campaign. Curbing and regulating social media content that would go against the ethos of free, fair and peaceful conduct of elections, will be a major challenge for the Election Commission in the upcoming elections.It is undeniably true that the uninterrupted conduct of elections, even in the wake of the pandemic, is essential for democracies to sustain and thrive. As suspension of elections citing health emergency can pave the possibility of authoritarian tendencies and unaccountable governance, democratic elections is of paramount importance especially in times of such unprecedented life and livelihood crisis. Convincing the electorates to participate in the elections enthusiastically, despite the Covid-19 threat, will depend on the confidence-building measures to be taken by the election conducting body, the Election Commission of India. But, as elections in a demographically large democracy like India demands vibrant, at times chaotic, political interaction and mass mobilisation on a large scale, the pandemic situation makes it immensely challenging. However, convincing the electorates to participate in the elections enthusiastically, despite the Covid-19 threat, will depend on the confidence-building measures to be taken by the election conducting body, the Election Commission of India.However, as extraordinary times demand extraordinary measures, conducting free, fair and also safe elections under the present Indian conditions will undoubtedly once again corroborate the resilient spirit of democracy in India.
People living in poverty do not have enough money for basic necessities such as food and shelter. An example of poverty is the state a person is in when he is homeless and does not have enough money. The rate of poverty in India is increasing because of the population in the urban areas. Most importantly, crores of peoples are below the poverty line and most of the people are on the borderline of poverty. Poverty in India is seen mainly in the rural areas because of the uneducated and unemployed and increased population. Many people do not afford to get proper foods for their daily life and even they don’t have their own homes, they sleep on the footpath or road, more populations need more food, money, and for staying houses but due to lack of this poverty grows very quickly, thus in addition rich are growing richer and the poor becoming more poorer which becomes difficult to fill the gap. Poverty has many effects like it reduces poor housing, illiteracy, increase the rate of child labour and unemployment, poor hygiene hence these poor people can not afford a balanced diet, nice clothes, well education etc. reason only because they don’t have much money to afford this. Poverty can be controlled by giving them proper education and also providing the proper facilities to the farmers so that those farmers get more profitable and do not migrate to cities in search of employment. Also, the illiterate people should get proper education to make their life better. Family planning is also essential for coming out of poverty. Poverty in our country is from ancient times. Even earlier times the poor people were not given the place that rich people used to get even if they were not allowed to enter religious places. Main causes of poverty are like unemployment, lack of education, poor utilization of resources, corruption and poor government policy.
How You Can Improve or Solve Poverty in India?
Poverty can be solved by improving food security by providing three meals a day and making them healthy and providing houses for those people at low cost and giving them proper education and facilities so that they can earn well and take care of their family and live a peaceful life. Awareness on population so that once the population is under control, the economy of the country will improve and move towards development and decrease in the poverty line. Poverty is becoming a complex problem for the people and for the government. How to overcome this, in India the poverty is high compared to other countries because the growth rate of per capita income per person is very low.
With lack of job opportunities many people move as a rickshaw puller, construction workers, domestic servants etc, with irregular small incomes hence they live in slum areas. Also, lack of land resources has been one of the major causes of poverty in India, even the small farmers of our country lead to poverty because they cultivate but do not get proper money in terms of profit and leads to poverty.
Population of India
The population has been increasing in India at a rapid speed, India’s population in 1991 was around 84.3 crores where was poverty at a high rate but now the current population of our country is around 130 crores whereas the population is almost doubled in last three decades but still not enough done for controlling the poverty in our country. Due to an increase in population, there is more unemployment, hence poverty is just the reflection of unemployment. More capital is required for making industry, giving proper transport facilities and other projects, hence the deficiency of its country is still underdeveloped and causes more poverty. Lack of skilled labor also leads to poverty because less-skilled labor have insufficient industrial education and training. Lack of infrastructure means that transport and communication have not been properly developed so that the farmers are not getting fertilizers for cultivation on time and industries do not get power supply and raw materials on time and thus end products are not marketed properly and not reachable on time. Because of poverty sometimes we don’t get those things for what we actually are. Hence to come out of poverty our government has to be more serious and also the citizens should take equal responsibilities. Remove the poverty from country governments has started many steps, in last 2-3 years we have seen that they become more serious by bringing GST in the action, demonetization so because of GST all the businessman can pay full tax and which will help to develop the country and the poverty ratio can be reduced. Steps of demonetization were taken so that black money can be utilized for the poor people and poverty can be reduced. We can overcome poverty by following all the guidelines of the government and can be free from poverty.
India’s Poverty Factors
One of the biggest problems of poverty in India is the country’s rapid population growth. As a result, there is a high rate of illiteracy, poor health-care facilities, and a lack of financial resources. Furthermore, the high population growth rate has an impact on individual income, making individual income much lower. By 2026, India’s population is predicted to surpass 1.5 billion, making it the world’s largest country. However, Economic growth is not rising at the same rate as the rest of the world. This indicates a labor shortage. About 20 million new jobs will be required to accommodate this big population. If such a vast number of people are poor, the number of poor will keep rising.
How Much Research is Important for Students to Write Good Essays?
The students must realize that brainstorming and a mind map of the essay will take them in the direction of their research. With the advent of the internet, the days are numbered for students who rely on a well-tipped encyclopedia from the school library as their only authoritative source for their story. If there is any real problem for our readers today is reducing their resources to a manageable number. At this stage, it is important to:
- Make sure the research material is directly related to the essay work
- Record detailed sources of information that they will use in their story
- Communicate in person by asking questions and challenging their own bias
- Identify the main points that will be highlighted in the story
- Gather ideas, arguments, and opinions together
- Identify the major issue they will discuss in their case.
- Once these stages have been completed by the student, the student will be ready to make his points in a logical order and prepare an essay.
Therefore, the topic discussed on this page is poverty and poverty is not a human problem but a national one. Also, it should be addressed immediately with the implementation of effective measures. In addition, the eradication of poverty has been a prerequisite for sustainable and inclusive growth for individuals, communities, the country and the economy.
Every year fifty thousand crore rupees of food grains are wasted. In a world where millions of people do not have food to eat properly, what story tells the destruction of such grains?
On the one hand, the remaining food of the night is thrown away daily as stale, on the other hand there are some people who do not eat even for a while and are starving. It is the story of almost every developed and developing country. The common man is troubled by inflation, the prices of food items are skyrocketing, but the government is not sure why the government does not release it in the open market when there is large stock of food grains. Even though rats eat grains in warehouses, grains keep moist and rot in water. Therefore a proper policy is needed to be executed so that food wastage can be prevented. Every person should be responsible and duty-bound to investigate this burning problem to provide food security to all. In Indian culture, food has the status of respect, which is the reason it is viewed as a transgression to surrender or insolence food erroneously. However, in the visually impaired race of innovation, we have overlooked this ceremony of our own.
According to some researches and findings by the report of the World Food Organization, consistently, food worth rupees fifty thousand crores go into the nation which is 40% of the nation’s creation.This wastage has its regular assets on our nation. Our nation is battling with water shortage. However, 230 cusecs of water are squandered in creating this waste of food, which can extinguish the thirst of 100 million individuals In the United States 30 per cent of all food, worth US$48.3 billion (€32.5 billion), is thrown away each year. It is estimated that about half of the water used to produce this food also goes to waste since agriculture is the largest human use of water.
Losses at the farm level are probably about 15–35 per cent, depending on the industry. The retail sector has comparatively high rates of loss of about 26 per cent, while supermarkets, surprisingly, only lose about 1 per cent. Overall, losses amount to around US$90 billion–US$100 billion a year
- Roughly one-third of the food produced in the world for human consumption every year – approximately 1.3 billion tonnes – gets lost or wasted.
- Food losses and waste amount to roughly US$ 680 billion in industrialized countries and US$ 310 billion in developing countries.
- Industrialized and developing countries dissipate roughly the same quantities of food – respectively 670 and 630 million tonnes.
- Fruits and vegetables, plus roots and tubers have the highest wastage rates of any food.
- Global quantitative food waste per year is roughly 30 per cent for cereals, 40-50 per cent for root crops, fruits, and vegetables, 20 per cent for oilseeds, meat and dairy plus 30 per cent for fish.
- Every year, consumers in rich countries waste almost as much food (222 million tonnes) as the entire net food production of sub-Saharan Africa (230 million tonnes).
- The amount of food wasted every year is equivalent to more than half of the world’s annual cereals crop (2.3 billion tonnes in 2009/2010).
- Per capita waste by consumers is between 95-115 kg a year in Europe and North America, while consumers in sub-Saharan Africa, South and Southeastern Asia, each throw away only 6-11 kg a year.
- Total per capita food production for human consumption is about 900 kg a year in rich countries, almost twice the 460 kg a year produced in the poorest regions.
- In developing countries, 40 per cent of losses occur at post-harvest and processing levels while in industrialized countries more than 40 per cent of losses happen at retail and consumer levels.
- At the retail level, large quantities of food are wasted due to quality standards that over-emphasize appearance.
- Food loss and waste also amount to a major squandering of resources, including water, land, energy, labor, and capital, and needlessly produce greenhouse gas emissions, contributing to global warming and climate change.
- Even if just one-fourth of the food currently lost or wasted globally could be saved, it would be enough to feed 870 million hungry people in the world.
- In developing countries, food waste occurs mainly at the early stages of the food value chain and can be traced back to financial, managerial and technical constraints in harvesting techniques as well as storage and cooling facilities. Strengthening the supply chain through the direct support of farmers and investments in infrastructure, transportation, as well as in an expansion of the food and packaging industry could help to reduce the amount of food loss and waste.
- In medium and high-income countries, food is wasted and lost mainly at later stages in the supply chain. Differing from the situation in developing countries, the behavior of consumers plays a huge part in industrialized countries. The study identified a lack of coordination between actors in the supply chain as a contributing factor. Farmer-buyer agreements can be helpful to increase the level of coordination. Additionally, raising awareness among industries, retailers, and consumers as well as finding beneficial use for food that is presently thrown away are useful measures to decrease the amount of losses and waste.
Effect of wastage of food
The effects of wastage of food drastically impact society as well as the environment.
- Food has to be processed before consumption. This means energy and resources are expended in harvesting, transporting, storing and cooking food.
- When food is wasted, all these efforts and energy goes to waste.
- Wasted food that ends up in landfills often produces large quantities of methane.
- Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, hence, it directly contributes to global warming.
What are the five ways we can prevent wastage of food?
5 ways in which we can prevent the wastage of food are given below.
- Shop for food items only for the limited quantity
- Don’t cook too much
- Try to preserve by keeping in the refrigerator
- Try to make new recipes from the leftovers
- Have a look at your serving numbers before cooking